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Playing card

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Gambling card games independence day

Postby Sajar В» 04.12.2019

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A playing card is a piece of specially prepared card stock , heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper , cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic that is marked with distinguishing motifs.

Often the front face and back of each card has a finish to make handling easier. They are most commonly used for playing card games , and are also used in magic tricks , cardistry , [1] [2] card throwing , [3] and card houses ; cards may also be collected. Playing cards are typically palm-sized for convenient handling, and usually are sold together in a set as a deck of cards or pack of cards. Playing cards are available in a wide variety of styles, as decks may be custom-produced for casinos [5] and magicians [6] sometimes in the form of trick decks , [7] made as promotional items, [8] or intended as souvenirs , [9] [10] artistic works, educational tools, [11] [12] [13] or branded accessories.

Cards may also be produced for trading card sets or collectible card games , which can comprise hundreds if not thousands of unique cards. Playing cards were first invented in China during the Tang dynasty. Playing cards may have been invented during the Tang dynasty around the 9th century AD as a result of the usage of woodblock printing technology. It describes Princess Tongchang, daughter of Emperor Yizong of Tang , playing the "leaf game" in with members of the Wei clan, the family of the princess' husband.

It received commentary by writers of subsequent dynasties. Other games revolving around alcoholic drinking involved using playing cards of a sort from the Tang dynasty onward. However, these cards did not contain suits or numbers. Instead, they were printed with instructions or forfeits for whomever drew them.

The earliest dated instance of a game involving cards occurred on 17 July when "Yan Sengzhu and Zheng Pig-Dog were caught playing cards [zhi pai] and that wood blocks for printing them had been impounded, together with nine of the actual cards. William Henry Wilkinson suggests that the first cards may have been actual paper currency which doubled as both the tools of gaming and the stakes being played for, [19] similar to trading card games.

Using paper money was inconvenient and risky so they were substituted by play money known as "money cards". One of the earliest games in which we know the rules is madiao , a trick-taking game , which dates to the Ming Dynasty — The two latter suits had Water Margin characters instead of pips on them [27] with Chinese to mark their rank and suit. The suit of coins is in reverse order with 9 of coins being the lowest going up to 1 of coins as the high card. Despite the wide variety of patterns, the suits show a uniformity of structure.

Every suit contains twelve cards with the top two usually being the court cards of king and vizier and the bottom ten being pip cards. Half the suits use reverse ranking for their pip cards. There are many motifs for the suit pips but some include coins, clubs, jugs, and swords which resemble later Mamluk and Latin suits. Michael Dummett speculated that Mamluk cards may have descended from an earlier deck which consisted of 48 cards divided into four suits each with ten pip cards and two court cards.

By the 11th century, playing cards were spreading throughout the Asian continent and later came into Egypt. They are dated to the 12th and 13th centuries late Fatimid , Ayyubid , and early Mamluk periods. In fact, the word "Kanjifah" appears in Arabic on the king of swords and is still used in parts of the Middle East to describe modern playing cards. Influence from further east can explain why the Mamluks, most of whom were Central Asian Turkic Kipchaks , called their cups tuman which means myriad in Turkic, Mongolian and Jurchen languages.

The Mamluk court cards showed abstract designs or calligraphy not depicting persons possibly due to religious proscription in Sunni Islam , though they did bear the ranks on the cards. Panels on the pip cards in two suits show they had a reverse ranking, a feature found in madiao, ganjifa , and old European card games like ombre , tarot , and maw.

A fragment of two uncut sheets of Moorish -styled cards of a similar but plainer style were found in Spain and dated to the early 15th century. Export of these cards from Cairo, Alexandria, and Damascus , ceased after the fall of the Mamluks in the 16th century.

Four-suited playing cards are first attested in Southern Europe in , [26] and are likely derived from the Mamluk suits of cups, coins, swords, and polo-sticks, which are still used in traditional Latin decks. In the account books of Johanna, Duchess of Brabant and Wenceslaus I, Duke of Luxembourg , an entry dated May 14, reads: "Given to Monsieur and Madame four peters, two forms, value eight and a half moutons, wherewith to buy a pack of cards".

In his book of accounts for or , Charles or Charbot Poupart, treasurer of the household of Charles VI of France , records payment for the painting of three sets of cards. From about to [46] professional card makers in Ulm , Nuremberg , and Augsburg created printed decks. Playing cards even competed with devotional images as the most common uses for woodcuts in this period. Most early woodcuts of all types were coloured after printing, either by hand or, from about onwards, stencils. These 15th-century playing cards were probably painted.

The Flemish Hunting Deck , held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art is the oldest complete set of ordinary playing cards made in Europe from the 15th century.

The names pique and spade , however, may have derived from the sword spade of the Italian suits. In the late 14th century, Europeans changed the Mamluk court cards to represent European royalty and attendants. In a description from , the earliest courts were originally a seated " king ", an upper marshal that held his suit symbol up, and a lower marshal that held it down. In England, the lowest court card was called the "knave" which originally meant male child compare German Knabe , so in this context the character could represent the "prince", son to the king and queen; the meaning servant developed later.

Although the Germans abandoned the queen before the s, the French permanently picked it up and placed it under the king. Packs of 56 cards containing in each suit a king, queen, knight, and knave as in tarot were once common in the 15th century.

The Company still exists today, having expanded its member ranks to include "card makers During the mid 16th century, Portuguese traders introduced playing cards to Japan. Packs with corner and edge indices i. The first such pack known with Latin suits was printed by Infirerra and dated , [56] but this feature was commonly used only from the end of the 18th century.

The first American-manufactured French deck with this innovation was the Saladee's Patent, printed by Samuel Hart in This was followed by the innovation of reversible court cards.

This invention is attributed to a French card maker of Agen in But the French government, which controlled the design of playing cards, prohibited the printing of cards with this innovation. In central Europe Trappola cards and Italy Tarocco Bolognese the innovation was adopted during the second half of the 18th century. The French pack with this design was printed around by Thomas Wheeler.

Sharp corners wear out more quickly, and could possibly reveal the card's value, so they were replaced with rounded corners. Before the midth century, British, American, and French players preferred blank backs. The need to hide wear and tear and to discourage writing on the back led cards to have designs, pictures, photos, or advertising on the reverse. The United States introduced the joker into the deck. It was devised for the game of euchre , which spread from Europe to America beginning shortly after the American Revolutionary War.

In euchre, the highest trump card is the Jack of the trump suit, called the right bower from the German Bauer ; the second-highest trump, the left bower , is the jack of the suit of the same color as trumps. The joker was invented c. Columbia University 's Rare Book and Manuscript Library holds the Albert Field Collection of Playing Cards, an archive of over 6, individual decks from over 50 countries and dating back to the s. Gaming Collection , which has been called one of the "most complete and scholarly collections [of books on cards and gaming] that has ever been gathered together".

Contemporary playing cards are grouped into three broad categories based on the suits they use: French, Latin, and Germanic. Latin suits are used in the closely related Spanish and Italian formats. The Swiss-German suits are distinct enough to merit their subcategory. Excluding jokers and tarot trumps, the French card deck preserves the number of cards in the original Mamluk deck, while Latin and Germanic decks average fewer.

Latin decks usually drop the higher-valued pip cards, while Germanic decks drop the lower-valued ones. Within suits, there are regional or national variations called "standard patterns. Some patterns have been around for hundreds of years. Jokers are not part of any pattern as they are a relatively recent invention and lack any standardized appearance so each publisher usually puts their own trademarked illustration into their decks.

The wide variation of jokers has turned them into collectible items. Any card that bore the stamp duty like the ace of spades in England, the ace of clubs in France or the ace of coins in Italy are also collectible as that is where the manufacturer's logo is usually placed.

Usually the cards have their pips printed only in the upper left corner, assuming they will be held in the right hand. This design is often uncomfortable for left-handed people who may prefer all four corners of the card to be used.

Other designs have the pips in all four corners, eliminating this problem. French decks come in a variety of patterns and deck sizes. The card deck is the most popular deck and includes 13 ranks of each suit with reversible "court" or face cards. Each suit includes an ace , depicting a single symbol of its suit, a king, queen, and jack, each depicted with a symbol of their suit; and ranks two through ten, with each card depicting that number of pips of its suit.

As well as these 52 cards, commercial packs often include between one and six jokers, most often two. Decks with fewer than 52 cards are known as stripped decks. The piquet pack has all values from 2 through 6 in each suit removed for a total of 32 cards. It is popular in France, the Low Countries , Central Europe and Russia and is used to play piquet , belote , bezique and skat.

It is also used in the Sri Lankan, whist-based game known as omi. Forty-card French suited packs are common in northwest Italy; these remove the 8s through 10s like Latin suited decks. A pinochle deck consists of two copies of a 24 card schnapsen deck, thus 48 cards. The 78 card tarot nouveau adds the knight card between queens and jacks along with 21 numbered trumps and the unnumbered Fool. Today the process of making playing cards is highly automated.

Large sheets of paper are glued together to create a sheet of pasteboard ; the glue may be black or dyed another dark color to increase the card stock's opacity. In the industry, this black compound is sometimes known as "gick". After the desired imagery is etched into printing plates , the art is printed onto each side of the pasteboard sheet, which is coated with a textured or smooth finish, sometimes called a varnish or print coating.

These coatings can be water- or solvent-based, and different textures and visual effects can be achieved by adding certain dyes or foils, or using multiple varnish processes. The pasteboard is then split into individual uncut sheets , which are cut into single cards and sorted into decks.

The tuck box may have a seal applied. Card manufacturers must pay special attention to the registration of the cards, as non-symmetrical cards can be used to cheat. Gambling corporations commonly have playing cards made specifically for their casinos. As casinos go through large numbers of decks each day, they may sometimes resell used cards that were "on the floor " — however, the cards sold to the public are altered, either by cutting the deck's corners or by punching a hole in the deck.

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Re: gambling card games independence day

Postby Vigul В» 04.12.2019

Influence from further east can explain why the Mamluks, most of whom were Central Asian Turkic Kipchaksday their cups tuman which means card in Turkic, Mongolian and Jurchen languages. Retrieved 30 May Archived games the original on 26 May William Henry Gambling suggests that the first cards may have been actual paper currency which doubled as both the independence of gaming and the stakes being played for, [19] similar to trading card games.

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Postby Tojajas В» 04.12.2019

The first American-manufactured French deck with this innovation was the Saladee's Patent, printed by Samuel Hart in An interesting question is what happens when the person trying to make recovery is the gambler's spouse, and the money or property lost was either the spouse's, or was community property. Retrieved 17 August

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