Gambling and Problem Gambling in the United States: Changes Between and

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Gambling games

Gambling and Problem Gambling in the United States: Changes Between 1999 and 2013

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Gambling games opinion sheet

Postby Kigalabar В» 10.03.2020


This data will not be made available to ensure the privacy and confidentiality of the participants. Harmful gambling is a public health issue that affects not only adults but also children. With the development of a range of new gambling products, and the marketing for these products, children are potentially exposed to gambling more than ever before. A semi-structured interview format included activities with children and open-ended questions.

Three key themes emerged from the data. Third, many children indicated consumption intentions towards sports betting.

This was due to four key factors: 1 the alignment of gambling with culturally valued activities; 2 their perceived knowledge about sport; 3 the marketing and advertising of gambling products and in particular sports betting ; and 4 the influence of friends and family.

The impact of gambling on the health and wellbeing of individuals, families and communities has become an increasingly discussed and debated public health issue. With the advent of new technologies making gambling products and opportunities more accessible in our environments than ever before, governments are considering how best to respond to the potential risks and benefits posed by these potentially harmful products. While many countries are currently considering the legalisation of sports and online betting [ 5 ], there is limited research evidence about the potential short- and long-term public health impacts of introducing these products, both on those who are legally allowed to gamble, and on children who are exposed to marketing for these products.

Australia provides an important case study for policy makers seeking to understand the impact of newer forms of gambling products on population subgroups [ 6 ].

Research has shown that sporting matches in particular have a high volume of marketing for gambling products [ 12 — 14 ]. This has stimulated considerable community debate about the impact of marketing on the normalisation of gambling for children, who make up a significant proportion of professional sport fans.

Theories relating to consumer socialisation have been central to research that seeks to understand how and why children decide to consume products that may be harmful for them. They are traditionally associated with family, peers, and the media including marketing [ 21 ].

The impact and influence of these socialising agents can have a different effect on individuals depending on their life stage and individual make-up [ 20 ]. Between the ages of about 7 and 11, children are able to understand the selling intentions of advertising, and purchasing and selecting products, but they still lack the skills to operate as sophisticated consumers in the marketplace. Children who believe that their parents gamble are more likely to want to try gambling themselves, and have higher rates of gambling [ 29 ].

For example, research has demonstrated that peer-based gambling may also lead children and in particular girls to gamble more than they would if they were on their own [ 31 ]. However, there is very limited information about whether young people may perceive some types of gambling as being more popular, and perhaps more importantly what may influence these perceptions.

While research has previously suggested that electronic forms of gambling are not particularly attractive for young people [ 33 ], these studies pre-date the newer and more pervasive forms of online gambling and the associated marketing for these products [ 34 ]. Finally researchers have investigated how gambling environments, and the promotion of gambling within these environments, may contribute to the normalisation of gambling in children.

Concerned about the impact of gambling advertising on children, politicians, policy makers, the media, academics and community members in Australia and the United Kingdom countries with significant amounts of televised gambling advertising have strongly advocated for prohibiting the promotion of gambling prior to the watershed the time at which adult content can be shown on television [ 34 , 39 , 40 ].

The study was guided by three broad research questions:. The data presented in this paper was part of a broader study with parents and children investigating their attitudes and perceptions towards gambling.

When developing this broader study, we utilised Constructivist Grounded Theory CGT methods in the development of research questions, and the collection and analysis of the data [ 41 ].

CGT also describes the dynamic role that both researchers and participants play in co-creating meaning about a particular topic or issue [ 41 ], and has been used in a number of different studies investigating gambling behaviours [ 24 , 42 , 43 ].

CGT principles were applied in a variety of ways throughout the study. For example, our interest in socialisation factors led us to theoretically sample family groups so that we could investigate the interaction between parents and children. The data presented in this paper focuses only on information relating to children in the sample. We chose this age group because research suggests that from about the age of 8 children start to understand the persuasive intent of marketing campaigns [ 22 ].

A snowball sampling approach was subsequently used requesting parents of children who participated in the study to recommend other families who might be interested in participating. Finally, purposive sampling techniques were used to reach specific types of young people who might have had different experiences with or attitudes towards gambling products [ 44 ]. Parents were provided with an information sheet about the study and asked to discuss participation with their child or children.

Two researchers attended the interviews at the family home with the lead author conducting most of the interviews with the children. Children were provided with information about the study prior to their participation and verbal consent was obtained.

Multiple children from one family were allowed to participate as previous research has shown that children within family groups may hold very different attitudes towards different products [ 34 ]. Face to face interviews were conducted with children using a semi-structured interview format. We drew upon many of the processes described in other studies investigating the impact of gambling marketing on children [ 34 , 37 ].

Children were interviewed away from parents and any other siblings. We also thought extensively about the language that would be used when discussing gambling with children [ 45 ].

In this context, we found that the framing of our questions was important in allowing children to expand upon their answers. Most children were aware that gambling was not allowed for children. It also provided us with an insight into the age at which children perceived that gambling was an acceptable activity. We also noted that the structure of the interview was important.

As such, we rearranged the order of questions for some children to introduce new concepts and to recall information that was discussed later in the interview [ 46 ]. Children were first asked general questions about themselves including their age and gender.

This included whether they had ever gambled before, which forms of gambling they believed were most popular, did they discuss gambling on sports with their family and friends, and which types of gambling, if any, would they like to try.

A range of visual sociology techniques were incorporated throughout the interview as a creative way to stimulate discussion and to encourage children to think about questions in different ways [ 47 ]. Gambling is sometimes a complex issue for children to think about, and picture boards have been used in other studies to help children discuss their attitudes and opinions about different forms of gambling [ 37 ].

A number of interactive tools were used to prompt discussions about gambling. These included a picture board featuring pictures of eight forms of gambling—casino games, EGMs, horse racing, keno, lotteries, raffles, scratch cards, and sports betting.

Children were then asked to circle the two forms of gambling they thought were the most popular ranking their choices as first or second and the activity they would like to try the most. Children were then asked qualitative questions about their choices. Interviews were transcribed by a professional transcription company, with QSR NVivo 10 being used to manage the data.

Data were analysed throughout the interviews, starting from the first interview. This was used to adjust the interview schedule and also to guide our sampling strategies. We stopped collecting data and finalised the analysis when all aspects of the data were able to illustrate a number of concepts, and could be categorised in a way that was clear and able to answer the research aims [ 44 ]. The first author led the data analysis process, reading the interviews in their entirety, and then within family groups.

Qualitative notes were regularly taken throughout the analysis process, with the first two authors meeting regularly to discuss the concepts emerging from the data. As each interview was completed, a process of coding occurred, with the researchers initially identifying broad codes, revising these to more specific codes as the data analysis progressed.

Where we were uncertain about the interpretation, we sought advice from the other researchers, who provided feedback until an agreed interpretation was reached. Where appropriate, we inserted tables to represent the key categories that had emerged from the data, and how these linked with different attitudes towards different products or different influences on behaviour.

We interviewed 48 children from 30 family groups. When we asked children about their participation in gambling, we did not distinguish between formal or informal gambling. Rather, we asked whether children had ever gambled before and then asked them to describe what they had participated in.

Children were asked about their current and future intentions to gamble. The percentages reflect the number of children in the sample and not the number of choices.

Sports betting, lotteries and horse race betting were the three forms of gambling that children perceived were the most popular forms of gambling. Children had similar reasons for the popularity of sports and horse race betting. Second, children believed that sports and horse race betting were popular because they were prolifically marketed on television. Third, children commented that these forms of gambling were aligned with culturally valued events such as sporting matches, and the Melbourne Cup racing event.

For example, children perceived that lotteries and scratch cards were popular because there was a chance of winning a lot of money on these forms of gambling.

Children also rationalised that lotteries and scratch cards were popular forms of gambling because they were less risky as compared to other types of gambling.

This was mostly because children perceived that only a small amount of money was needed to play. The following child believed the chance of winning was enough incentive to make people want to enter lotteries:. But they do it just because, the chances are not really in their favour but they do it because…the slim chance of winning that amount of money is just enough for them—year-old boy. Those children who perceived that EGMs and Keno were popular chose these forms of gambling because they had seen them when having family meals at local pubs or clubs.

However, unlike other types of gambling, even when children chose EGMs as being a popular activity, they had a very negative view of the risks and financial losses associated with these games. Some children who thought that EGMs were popular also recalled that they were harmful for communities because of media attention relating to these machines:.

And they rake in so much money each year. One 8-year-old boy thought that EGMs were popular because they required people to continue to put money into them:. Finally, a small number of children perceived that casino games were popular because they were considered as adult forms of entertainment. Nineteen children in this study described that they had engaged in gambling either formally or informally.

The first was the influence of family members and other adults in participating in gambling, and the second was the link between gambling and culturally valued events. These two factors were often intertwined. While these bets rarely involved money, they related to specific events during sporting matches, such as which player would kick the most goals.

The following child described how he placed bets with a family friend, and with his grandmother, about specific outcomes associated with matches. The child emphasised that he had won the bets, and that the person he was betting against was expected to follow through with their agreement:. I won. Most children bet with either their own pocket money, or money given to them by their parents. Children who had participated in betting on the Melbourne Cup horse race rarely perceived that they had been involved in gambling.

For example, the following child stated that he had never gambled but had used his pocket money in a sweep for the Melbourne Cup:. Some children described that betting on the Melbourne Cup was an exception from gambling, because other than this event they had otherwise never participated in gambling. Another 8-year-old boy described the Melbourne cup sweep as an annual family event:. So we get a newspaper and we cut up all the names of the horses and then we give out an even amount to everyone.

I put on a bet, but my Mum did it for me. A third of children in this study indicated that they would never gamble. The main reason that children did not want to try gambling was related to a fear of losing money.

How To Bet On Football: A Beginners Guide To Sports Gambling, time: 7:00
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Re: gambling games opinion sheet

Postby Zushakar В» 10.03.2020

P roblem gamblers are worth a lot of money to casinos. The middle section of Table 5 shows how the distribution of frequent gambling gambling two times a week or more has gambling between studies across various demographic groups. Http://, sheet is of utmost importance that impacts are examined on separate levels. The funder had no further games in the opinion the article or in games online subsequent grade decision to submit it for publication. Article Google Scholar

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Re: gambling games opinion sheet

Postby Arashigar В» 10.03.2020

At home, he was always on time for dinner. Early adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising and its relationship to underage drinking. In this approach, monetary value is also assigned to intangible harms harms not necessarily monetary in nature, e.

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Re: gambling games opinion sheet

Postby Aramuro В» 10.03.2020

Oxford: National Academies Press; Gambling and its impacts in a northeastern Minnesota community: an exploratory study. The left section of Table 5 shows how the distribution of past-year gambling has changed between studies for various demographic groups.

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